e1b1a in the levant

Underhill PA, Jin L, Lin AA et al. DNA from Congolese samples was extracted using the Gentra protein precipitation method (Gentra Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Salas A, Richards M, De la FT et al. It was first reported in a person from the Gambia.[76]. BMC Evol Biol 2010; 10: 92. wiki: E-V22 Concentrated in Northeast Africa and the Near East. Montano V, Ferri G, Marcari V et al. See Supplementary Table S4 for Guthrie classifications of all Bantu-speaking groups included in the analysis. The Greeks remained in control of the Middle East until the Roman conquest, then regained influence over the region during the Byzantine period. The original Phoenician M81 in the Levant could also have diffused across the Eastern Mediterranean over the centuries, during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Furthermore, all the modern members of E-V13 descend from a common ancestor who lived approximately 5,500 years ago, and all of them also descend from a later common ancestor who carried the CTS5856 mutation. Farming, languages, and genes. (2005) and Rosa et al. The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa. Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), the general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy, probably belonged to haplogroup E-V13 based on the Y-DNA results from another Garibaldi from the same province in his ancestral Liguria. E-M2 has several subclades, but many of these subhaplogroups are included in either E-L485 or E-U175. Although the battery of the NRY markers typed in UEP kits gives a relatively crude resolution of NRY haplogroups, the typing of four UEP markers within E1b1a considerably increases the resolution of NRY types associated with EBSP.32. Mutation rates at Y chromosome specific microsatellites. [25] Ganda was of West African ancestry and carried haplogroups E1b1a-CTS5612 and L1c1c. The M81 clade is defined by 150 other mutations beside M81 itself. . They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Whether these E-M78 samples came with Neolithic farmers from the Near East or were already present among Mesolithic Europeans is unclear at present. [21], In Granada, a Muslim (Moor) of the Cordoba Caliphate,[22] who was of haplogroups E1b1a1 and H1+16189,[23][24] as well as estimated to date between 900 CE and 1000 CE, and a Morisco,[22] who was of haplogroup L2e1,[23][24] as well as estimated to date between 1500 CE and 1600 CE, were both found to be of West African (i.e., Gambian) and Iberian descent. Thomas MG, Bradman N, Flinn HM : High throughput analysis of 10 microsatellite and 11 diallelic polymorphisms on the human Y-chromosome. Traces of earlier inhabitants, however, can be observed today in these regions via the presence of the Y DNA haplogroups A1a, A1b, A2, A3, and B-M60 that are common in certain populations, such as the Mbuti and Khoisan. The discovery of two SNPs (V38 and V100) by Trombetta et al. Y6923 also emerged around 3500 BCE, but became almost extinct. For comparison, the NRY haplotype diversity treating E1b1a as a single haplogroup ranged from 0.821 to 0.945, with the exception of Anuak who displayed a much lower diversity (h=0.516). Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 454465. [5] In Eritrea and most of Ethiopia (excluding the Anuak), E-V38 is usually found in the form of E-M329, which is autochthonous, while E-M2 generally indicates Bantu migratory origins. The K257 and Y4970 branch emerged around 3000 BCE and is found in Iran, Armenia, Turkey, Russia, Greece, Italy and France, among others. Attempts were made to identify genetic relationships among EBSP groups in the context of Africa as a whole10, 11 (also see Supplementary Figure S112). e1b1a is Bantu? [30] E-M10 was found in a single person of the Lissongo group in the Central African Republic and two members in a "Mixed" population from the Adamawa region.[12]. We thank all DNA donors and those assisting in sample collection and Professor Mark Thomas and Dr Krishna Veeramah for their support with typing and helpful comments and suggestions on the manuscript. We define expansion in this context to mean diffusion of alleles. [25] Banza was of western Central African ancestry and carried haplogroups E1b1a-CTS668 and L3e3b1. [59] It has also been observed in a number of populations in Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America among people of African descent. As of November 2016, he was the 12th richest person in the world. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 532544. These are to date the oldest known E1b1b individuals. A combination of UEPs and STRs in the paternally inherited NRY was typed in eight Congolese groups (n=591). Both could have brought different subclades of E-V13, and a founder effect or the phenomenon of elite dominance among the ruling invaders might have caused a fast growth of E-V13 lineage in Late Bronze Age and Iron Age Greece. 194, Last edited on 14 February 2023, at 11:37, Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups, Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world, Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Sub-Saharan Africa, "The peopling of the last Green Sahara revealed by high-coverage resequencing of trans-Saharan patrilineages", "Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent", "Whole-Genome-Sequence-Based Haplotypes Reveal Single Origin of the Sickle Allele during the Holocene Wet Phase", "A new topology of the human Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) revealed through the use of newly characterized binary polymorphisms", "Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its 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Exposure", "Sickle -globin haplotypes among patients with sickle cell anemia in Basra, Iraq: A cross-sectional study", "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations", "A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes", "Ethiopians and Khoisan share the deepest clades of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny", "Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel", "Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean", "On the origins and admixture of Malagasy: new evidence from high-resolution analyses of paternal and maternal lineages", "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males", "High-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula", "Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa", "Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes", "A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa", "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography", "The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula", "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions", "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman", "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan", "Sub-populations within the major European and African derived haplogroups R1b3 and E3a are differentiated by previously phylogenetically undefined Y-SNPs", "Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba", "Colloquium paper: genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture among Hispanic/Latino populations", "Y-chromosomal variation in sub-Saharan Africa: insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups", "Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria", "Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations", "A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing", "The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana", "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree", "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania", "Hierarchical Patterns of Global Human Y-Chromosome Diversity", "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages", "Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes", "Y-Chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Haplogroup_E-M2&oldid=1139298274, M2, DYS271/SY81, M291, P1/PN1, P189.1, P293.1, This page was last edited on 14 February 2023, at 11:37. DYS271/M2/SY81, P1/PN1, P189, P293, and M291 appear to form E1b1a1*. Diamond J, Bellwood P : Farmers and their languages: the first expansions. The first Indo-European migration to Greece was that of the Mycenaeans from c. 1650 BCE. The haplogroup E1b1a-M2 (and its sub-lineages) is widely spread in Africa and highly prevalent in all Bantu sub-Saharan populations, with frequencies above 80% in most populations 39, 40,46,47 .. Autosomally they could be modelled as 2/3 Natufian and 1/3 Sub-Saharan African (West African), confirming the close genetic link between Late Paleolithic North Africans and Mesolithic South Levantines. Only two other haplogroups exceeded 5% of the total: BT* (xDE,KT) (7.5%) and E* (xE1b1a) (5.1%). E1b1a and E1b1b are PN2 clade lineages. Bantu and European Y-lineages in sub-Saharan Africa. Remains found in modern day Israel were analysed and confirmed to carry this haplogroup, dating as far back as the Natufian culture - a peoples living in the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean area of Western Asia . Z830, M310.1's . One of his patrilineal descendants was identified as a member of haplogroup E-V13 > Z17107. Zidane was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll. Cruciani et al. Both of them carried the Y-chromosome haplogroup is E1b1b1a1b1a6a1c (E-V13 > CTS12223 > BY3880 > E5017 > CTS9320 > Z17264 > PH1173). [30][38] However, the discovery in 2011 of the E-M2 marker that predates E-M2 has led Trombetta et al. Nowadays E-V13 is the only Mediterranean haplogroup consistently found throughout Europe, even in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Baltic countries, which are conspicuous by the absence of other Neolithic haplogroups like G2a (bar the Indo-European G2a-Z1815), J1 and T (except in Estonia). [10][11][12], At Taukome, in Botswana, an individual, dated to the Early Iron Age (1100 BP), carried haplogroups E1b1a1 (E-M2, E-Z1123) and L0d3b1. The advantage of this hypothesis is that M81 is indeed found exclusively within the borders of the Roman Empire, and in a big part of the empire. Table 1 reports the frequencies of all observed haplogroups, including the component haplogroups of E1b1a. Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P et al. Google Scholar. Mol Ecol 2011; 20: 26932708. In whichever scenario, it is clear that M81 benefited from a potent founder effect in the Maghreb, a region that was first dominated by the Carthaginian elite, but quickly became one of the favourite regions of residence for the Roman elite within the empire (along with Spain, France and Greece). E-M2 is a diverse haplogroup with many branches. However, Razib Khan in this podcast says that E1b1a was pretty common among ancient Levantines. This page was last modified 01:24, 7 January 2020. "E3a" redirects here. Haplotype diversity, h, and its SE were estimated from unbiased formulae of Nei41 and was performed using Arlequin software version 3.0.42 Average squared difference (ASD) in STR allele size between all chromosomes and the presumed ancestral haplotype (assumed to be the modal haplotype), averaged over loci, were estimated using YTIME software,43 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated as described in Thomas et al44 using the R environment of statistical computing (www.R-project.org). The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations. [29] Some may have migrated into and introduced the Senegal and Benin sickle cell haplotypes into Basra, Iraq, where both occur equally. Pereira L, Gusmao L, Alves C et al. It is likely to have expanded south as the demographic events comprising the EBSP took place. So what exactly is the definition of a hamite? But others are from E1b1a and E1b1b (common in Africa and other places), R1a (up to 30% in Ashkenazi men), R1b (the most common lineage in Europe), Q (Asia), I (Europe, but rare), and G (mainly Western Asia).6 The distribution of haplogroups found among the Spanish Sephardim was similar to a Jewish population in Turkey Genome Res 1997; 7: 9961005. E1b1a is an African lineage that expanded from northern Africa to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. [69], The supposed "Bantu haplotype" found in E-U175 carriers is "present at appreciable frequencies in other NigerCongo languages speaking peoples as far west as Guinea-Bissau". Tanya M Simms 2011, The Peopling of the Bahamas: A Phylogeographical M81 has two immediate subclades A5604 and M183 (aka PF2477 or PF2546). In just a few centuries, that very minor E-V13 lineage had started an expansion process that would turn it into one of Europe's most widespread paternal lineages and reach far beyond the borders of Europe itself, also spreading to the eastern edge of the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Kurdistan, Iran, and even Siberia. The PF6759 subclade seems to have reached Sardinia during the Neolithic period. The highest percentage of E-M81 in Europe is found among the Pasiegos (30%, n=101), an isolated community living in the mountains of Cantabria. Montano et al. [30] Three South Africans tested positive for this marker. Also in favor of E1b1b-V22 is the fact that E1b1a occurs in 2% of Egyptians, while E1b1b-V22 occurs in 15% of north Egyptians, 5% in Egyptians from several oasis to the west of the Nile, and 4% in south Egyptians. Brief thoughts on the likelihood of finding samples of E1b1a in the Levant._____SOURCES:[0:46] The relevant FaceBook thread:https://www.facebook.com/gr. Pereira L, Macaulay V, Torroni A, Scozzari R, Prata MJ, Amorim A : Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade. The probability of observing a particular haplotype, if present, in a randomly collected set was assessed by the equation (1q)n=(1P), where P is the probability of observing the haplotype, q is the minimum frequency of the haplotype to be observed and n is the number of chromosomes. Lewis MP : Ethnologue: Languages of the World. It is interesting to speculate on the possibility that this later expansion was associated with the contemporaneous development of metallurgy. [9] Brucato et al. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles People and Disease. Nurse D : Bantu languages; in Brown K, (ed): Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Correspondence to These data are consistent with multiple expansion events southwards from West Africa. In this scenario, M81 could have been the lineage of Carthaginian kings, or of a particularly prolific aristocratic familiy during the Carthaginian Republic. Pakendorf et al7 in a recent review of the contribution made by molecular genetic analysis to the study of EBSP concluded that patrilocality and possibly polygyny may have contributed to NRY, but not mtDNA, association with linguistic affinity. E1b1a is also known as E-M2 and E1b1b is also know as E-M215 or as E-M35. The French footballer of Algerian origin Zinedine Zidane (born 1972), is a member of haplogroup E1b1b (M81) according to his brother's DNA test. The TMRCA for each haplogroup-defining UEP (with at least 20 chromosomes) is presented in Table 3 along with regions and countries within which each haplogroup was observed. F1382 appears to have expanded during the Iron Age from the Levant to the Arabian peninsula, where it is almost exclusively found today. Beleza S, Gusmao L, Amorim A et al. [69] This is the modal haplotype of STR markers that is common in carriers of E-U175. Since then, this marker (now defining the E1b1a haplogroup) has been typed in many groups across sub-Saharan Africa19, 26, 27, 28 and, without exception, all studies have shown that the majority of NRY types in Bantu-speaking groups belong to this haplogroup. Anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and, in recent decades, genetics have been used to elucidate some of the events and processes involved. Sectors in pie charts are coloured according to the haplogroup colour code to the left. The most prominent member is probably John C. Calhoun (17821850), who was the seventh Vice President of the United States. Destro-Bisol G, Donati F, Coia V et al. Approximately 20% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup E1b1b. In doing so, we assume (a) that the NRY has a genealogy that, at least in that part of the genealogical tree analysed in this paper, can be unambiguously constructed using UEP polymorphisms47 (Figure 2) and (b) ASD is a measure of STR diversity that increases linearly over time and that calculating ASD from the common ancestor of a random sample of NRY that are members of a haplogroup provides an estimate of the TMRCA.43 Consistent with previous studies, we observed a high frequency modal of six-STR NRY haplotype (DYS19, 388, 390, 391, 392, 393:151221101113) throughout the area of the EBSP.26, 35, 36 Interpreting the frequencies of the component haplogroups of E1b1a within the context of their geographic distribution and TMRCA values throws additional light on the expansions associated with the EBSP. The African diaspora: mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic slave trade. Considering the Y haplogroup composition in our Dominican sample, we can note that the clades frequently observed in the Sahel are usually rare or absent. The low percentage of E-V13 is coastal Sardinia would be better explained by more recent settlements on the island by the Romans, or even the Goths, who also settled in Sardinia. Castri L, Tofanelli S, Garagnani P et al. Whether origins of M81 lie in the Carthaginian or Roman elite, its parent clades M310.1 and Z827 would have originated in the Levant, and not in Northwest Africa. Hum Mutat 2005; 26: 520528. [33] In other words, as one moves to West Africa from western Central Africa, the less subclade E1b1a1f is found. Mitochondrial, Y-chromosome and autosomal DNA analyses have been carried out in attempts to understand the demographic events that have taken place. even though his parent clade is not and brother E-M215 is not. Where samples were ancestral for the four UEP markers, a further six to eleven UEPs (UEP1 and UEP2 kits: sY81, SRY4064, YAP, SRY10831, M13, M9, SRY465, M20, Tat, 92R7 and M17) were typed.38 NRY haplogroups were classified according to the nomenclature of the Y-Chromosome Consortium39 (Figure 1) and STR repeat sizes were assigned according to the nomenclature of Kayser et al.40 Additionally, the four E1b1a-specific UEPs were typed in 1820 samples, previously characterised as E1b1a in the TCGA database (published35, 36 and unpublished data), from the 35 non-Congo, sub-Saharan groups listed in Supplementary Table S1. [25] Anika was of Sub-Saharan African ancestry and carried haplogroups E1b1a-CTS6126 and L2b1. 1923 - pictured), who won two Academy Awards for Gandhi in 1983. [25] Zimbu was of western Central African ancestry and carried haplogroups E1b1a-CTS5497 and L3e1e. (2022) analysed the DNA of the remains of John Corvinus and his son Christopher Corvinus, the two last members of the Hunyadi family. This suggests that E1b1b may indeed have appeared in East Africa, then expanded north until the Levant. Science 2009; 324: 10351044. The third are the Goths. All of the groups characterised in this study speak a Niger-Congo language, except for the Anuak in south-west Ethiopia who speak a Nilo-Saharan language. This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) 2008 Tree,[76] the ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup E Tree,[7] and subsequent published research. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria. Yes, I'm aware of Ramesses III belonging to Haplogroup E1b1a, but additional genetic testing suggest that the remains may indeed belong to y-dna haplogroup E1b1b[citation needed] which split from E1b1a about 40-50 thousand years ago, and tends to be common in the Levant, Northern Africa, and the Rift valley region in modern times.

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